I just heard back from the insurance company with their decision! I'm surprised they worked so fast.
Apparently, the insurance agent talked to the bike shop to confirm their quote for repairs, and unfortunately, the quote they originally wrote for me didn't have the derailleur on it. They quoted the derailleur over the phone for me, but it didn't get added on to their estimated total. So basically, I'll be able to replace all the damaged parts on my bike except the rear derailleur, which is scratched up but still works. If I throw in some new bar tape and other small items, I should only be paying about $30 out of my own pocket.
So overall I'm pretty happy with the verdict. The insurance agent said that I should get a check in the mail in about 4 days, so I'll take the bike in to the shop tonight!
Slick, you'll be on the road again soon! I seriously cannot wait!